Methylcobalamin is one of the two coenzyme forms of vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin). Vitamin B12 plays an important role in red blood cells, prevention and treatment of anemia, methylation reactions, and immune system regulation. Evidence indicates methylcobalamin has some metabolic and therapeutic applications not shared by the other forms of vitamin B12.
Methylcobalamin is the active form of vitamin B12 that acts as a cofactor for methionine synthase in the conversion of homocysteine to methionine, thus lowering blood levels of homocysteine. Methylcobalamin acts as a methyl donor and participates in the synthesis of SAM-e (S-adenosylmethionine), a nutrient that has powerful mood elevating properties.
One of the most overlooked supplements on the market is Vitamin B12.Your body needs this vitamin, in combination with other B vitamins, to maintain a healthy nervous system, maintain energy levels and production of good DNA. All very important processes to your everyday existence.
The number one symptom for Vitamin B12 deficiency is feeling tired and lethargic. The B-Complex vitamins play an important role in carbohydrate digestion and energy production. Without all of the proper components this system can breakdown and cause a these symptoms. If left without diagnosis or treatment, B12 deficiency can lead to a serious medical condition, Pernicious Anemia. The symptoms of B12 deficiency include; shortness of breath, fatigue, rapid heart rate, loss of appetite, diarrhea, tingling and numbness of hands and feet, sore mouth, unsteady gait, especially in the dark, tongue problems, impaired smell and bleeding gums. A high intake of Folic Acid can hide B12 deficiency. This condition is easily fixed by adding B12 rich foods to your diet or taking supplements. In most cases, Vitamin B12 should be taken in conjunction with a Folic Acid supplement and a B-Complex vitamin.
Because of changing diets, and highly processed food, there has been a significant increase in Vitamin B12 deficiency. Vitamin B12 is found in red meat, eggs, dairy and fish. There are no know sources of Vitamin B12 in vegetables. At one time it was quite common to feast on organ meat, but you would be hard press to find a fast food restaurant serving steak and kidney pie or liver and onions! The modern diets has led to a decline in nutritionally balanced diets. The highest sources of B12 can be found in mollusks/clams (85 micrograms per 3oz portion) and beef liver (47 micrograms per 3oz portion). Over cooking can lead to the breakdown of the vitamins. If those are not to you your liking then salmon, trout and beef are moderate sources with about 5 micrograms per 3 oz portion. Over cooking these foods can significantly reduce the quantity and quality of nutrients.
If oysters and organ meat are not to your liking then Vitamin B12 supplements will work perfectly well. There are a number of forms of B12, and this list will help you pick the proper supplement for your conditions. When in doubt, contact your doctor or use Methylcobalamin.
Methylcobalamin is a coenzyme form of Vitamin B12 which is biologically active. This means that your body can use it as is, and does not require any metabolic steps to make it body friendly. The Methylcobalamin comes in a sublingual tablet(dissolves under your tongue) because your digestive system modifies the molecule. The sublingual method allows the vitamin to directly enter your bloodstream, providing rapid benefits.
Cyanocobalamin is a synthetic, and inactive, form of Vitamin B12 that requires a number of metabolic processes to gain any benefit. This can be problematic in people with certain deficiencies and health issues. Unfortunately, this is the most common form of Vitamin B12 on the market and is found in most Vitamin B-Complexís.
Hydroxycobalamin is a non-active form of Vitamin B12 and is used commonly as an injectable form. It has a number of benefits depending on your condition. It is recommended for those who have cyanide sensitivity. Hydroxycobalamin helps the body bind free cyanide, by reacting with the molecule to form cyanocobalamin, which can then be excreted from the body. Most people are aware that cyanide is highly toxic, but the body regularly uses it in very small quantities for metabolic processes.
Adenosylcobalamin is the other coenzyme form of Vitamin B12 and is biologically active. This form is usually sold as an injectable form and only available by prescription.
Common Reasons for Vitamin B12 Deficiency There are a number of reasons why a person may have Vitamin B12 deficiency. Some people lack the proper intrinsic factor to properly digest this molecule. Many times this will show up at a young age but may occur as you age, however many times it is not diagnosed properly.
Veganís also may be deficient because their diet does not allow them to eat sources of food derived from animals. Unfortunately, Vitamin B12 is only found in animal sources. Taking supplements of B12 will ensure that there are no issues.
It is also recommended that elderly people take Vitamin B12 supplements. It has been shown in studies that 15% of people over 65 have Vitamin B12 deficiency. This is partially caused by a decline in the gastric system, which results in poor absorption of nutrients. The preferred source of B12 for the elderly is sublingual or injectable forms, since they bypass the digestive systems.
Another culprits for B12 deficiency is gastric acid-blocking products and medication, which can lead to decreased vitamin B12 levels. This is also related to people with malabsorption conditions such as Celiac disease, low stomach acid or those who have had stomach or intestinal surgery. Any stomach condition may result in poor absorption of nutrients.
Vitamin B12 is a very safe, and affordable, supplement with real benefits. For anyone that is concerned about their health, proper supplementation can play a very important role. If you have any of the symptoms or conditions associated with Vitamin B12 deficiency try taking a coenzyme form of B12, usually Methylcobalamin, and a B-Complex Vitamin with Folic Acid for a two week period. If you notice any benefits, great, and if not there was no harm done. You should always check with your doctor if your symptoms continue.
One interesting thought about Vitamin B12 is that oysters were documented as a aphrodisiac food by the Romans in the second century. Could it have been that many Romans were deficient in B12, and when they ate the oysters, which are high in B12, they were no longer deficient resulting in an increase in energy and youthfulness? Itís possible.
Japanese scientists have identified a form of vitamin B12 that protects against neurological disease and aging by a unique mechanism that differs from current therapies. Some of the disorders that may be preventable or treatable with this natural vitamin therapy, called methylcobalamin, include chronic fatigue syndrome, Parkinson's disease, peripheral neuropathies, Alzheimer's disease, muscular dystrophy and neurological aging. Americans have immediate access to this unique and new form of vitamin B12, and, unlike prescription drugs, it costs very little and is free of side effects.
Vitamin B12 is a general label for a group of essential biological compounds knows as cobalamins. The cobalamins are structurally related to hemoglobin in the blood, and a deficiency of vitamin B12 can cause anemia. The primary concern of conventional doctors is to maintain adequate cobalamin status to protect against anemia.
The most common form of vitamin B12 is called cyanocobalamin. However, over the last ten years, a number of central and peripheral neurological diseases have been linked to a deficiency of a very specific cobalamin, the methylcobalamin form, that is required to protect against neurological diseases and aging. The liver converts a small amount of cyanocobalamin into methylcobalamin within the body, but larger amounts of methylcobalamin are necessary to correct neurological defects and protect against aging.
Published studies show that high doses of methylcobalamin are needed to regenerate neurons as well as the myelin sheath that protects nerve axons and peripheral nerves.
CFIDS and B-12 In the Summer 1998 issue of Healthwatch, an important research article reported a fascinating new finding. Over 60% of CFIDS and FM patients cerebral spinal fluids contained subnormal levels of vitamin B12. On the other hand, vitamin B12 levels in the blood did not significantly deviate from normal ranges.
According to Dr. Paul Cheney's treatment pyramid for CFIDS, vitamin B12 in its non-cyanocobalamin form (the type commercially available) is a potent detoxifier of the brain. Recent studies in Europe suggest that it needs to be given in large doses in the range of 10 - 20 mg per day, or even more. This supplementation of methylcobalamin might protect the cognitive function of patients with CFIDS by preventing the death of brain cells.
One cause of brain cell death is glutamate toxicity. Brain cells use glutamate as a neurotransmitter, but unfortunately glutamate is a double-edged sword in that it can also kill brain cells. The release of glutamate from the synapses is a usual means by which neurons communicate with each other.
Effective communication means controlled release of glutamate at the right time to the right cells, but when glutamate is released in excessive amounts, intercellular communication ceases. The flood of glutamate into the receiving neurons drives them into hyperactivity, and the excessive activity leads to cellular degradation.
The good news is that it may now be possible to protect brain cells against glutamate toxicity by taking methylcobalamin supplementation. In a study in the European Journal of Pharmacology, it was shown that methylcobalamin protected against glutamate-, aspartate- and nitroprusside- induced neurotoxicity in rat cortical neurons.
Researchers concluded that methylcobalamin protects against neurotoxicity by enhancing brain cell methylation. The CFIDS & Fibromyalgia Health Resource recommends methylation-enhancing therapies such as vitamin B6, vitamin B12, folic acid and trimethylglycine (TMG), taken together, to protect against heart disease, stroke and other aging-related diseases.
The scientists who conducted the methylcobalamin studies emphasize that ongoing intake of methylcobalamin is necessary to protect against neurotoxicity. Thus for methylcobalamin to be effective in protecting against neurological disease, daily supplementation may be required.
An appropriate dose to protect against neurological aging might be 1 to 5 mg a day taken under the tongue in lozenge form.
Sleep A recent German study appearing in Neuropharmacology showed methylcobalamin reduced the amount of time subjects slept; sleep quality was better and subjects awoke feeling refreshed, with better alertness and concentration. Part of this effect was apparently due to melatonin suppression during the daytime because morning methylcobalamin supplementation reduces drowsiness by decreasing daytime melatonin levels.
Multiple Sclerosis According to a recent study at Vanderbilt University, chlamydia pneumoniae might link multiple sclerosis (MS) to CFIDS. This makes the published effect of methylcobalamin treatment on MS of great importance to those who suffer from CFIDS.
A study in the Journal of Internal Medicine investigated the daily administration of 60 mg of methylcobalamin to patients with chronic progressive multiple sclerosis (MS), a disease that has a poor prognosis and feature side spread demyelination in the central nervous system.
Although motor disability did not improve, there were clinical improvements in visual and auditory MS related disabilities. The scientist stated that methylcobalamin might be an effective adjunct to immunosuppressive treatment for chronic, progressive MS. Those with less serious forms of MS may consider adding methylcobalamin to their daily treatment regimen.
The effects of methylcobalamin were studied on an animal model of muscular dystrophy. This study, published in Neuroscience Letter looked at degeneration of axon motor terminals. In mice receiving methylcobalamin, nerve sprouts were more frequently observed and regeneration of motor nerve terminals occurred in sites that had been previously degenerating.
Regenerating Nerves Few substances have been shown to regenerate nerves in humans with peripheral neuropathies. However, a study in the Journal of Neurological Science postulated that methylcobalamin could increase protein synthesis and help regenerate nerves. The scientists showed that very high doses of methylcobalamin produce nerve regeneration in laboratory rats.
The scientists stated that ultra-high doses of methylcobalamin might be of clinical use for patients with peripheral neuropathies. The human equivalent dose the scientists used is about 40 mg of sublingually administered methylcobalamin on a daily basis.
Those suffering from peripheral neuropathies often take alpha lipoic acid. Based on our new understanding of peripheral neuropathy, it may be prudent that anyone using alpha lipoic acid also take at least 5 mg a day of sublingually administered methylcobalamin to ensure that alpha lipoic acid will be bioavailable to the peripheral nerves.
Cancer/Immune Function A study in the journal Oncology examined the effects of methylcobalamin on several different kinds of tumors in mice. The administration of methylcobalamin for seven days suppressed liver, lung and ascites tumor growth. Mice receiving methylcobalamin survived longer than control mice did. In mice irradiated before tumor cell inoculation, methylcobalamin did not improve survival.
The effects of methylcobalamin on human immune function was investigated in the Journal of Clinical Immunology. The study showed that methylcobalamin demonstrated remarkable T cell-enhancing effects when the T cells were exposed to certain antigens.
The scientists also showed that methylcobalamin improved the activity of T helper cells. The scientists concluded that methylcobalamin could modulate lymphocyte function by augmenting regulatory T cell activities.
Americans need to know about this important natural therapy that could extend the healthy human life span. A search of the scientific literature reveals 334 published studies on methylcobalamin. However, it would not be an exaggeration to say that virtually no doctors know of it or are recommending it.
Methylcobalamin should be considered for the treatment of any neurological disease. For example, based on its unique mechanisms of action, methylcobalamin could be effective in slowing the progression of "untreatable" diseases such as ALS (Lou Gerhig's disease).
Since methylcobalamin is not a drug, there is little economic incentive to conduct expensive clinical studies on it, so it may be a long time before we know just how effective this unique form of vitamin B12 is in slowing the progression of common diseases like Parkinson's disease.
The sublingual intake of methylcobalamin is an affordable and effective natural therapy, and has proven even safe when given in large doses.
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