Amino Acid Supplement
Glutamine is the most abundant single amino acid in the blood and in the muscle tissue comprising up to 60% of the amino acid pool in skeletal muscle. Glutamine’s unique structure, containing two nitrogen side chains, consists of 19% nitrogen - making it the primary transporter of nitrogen into the muscle cell. In fact, glutamine alone is responsible for 35% of the nitrogen that gets into the muscle cell.
Some tissue types, however, depend on glutamine much more than others. Specifically, glutamine is utilized as a source of energy and for nucleotide synthesis by all rapidly dividing cells, such as the cells of the intestinal lining and certain immune cells (thymocytes, lymphocytes and macrophages). Without sufficient glutamine, the intestines atrophy and the immune function breaks down.
Glutamine serves as a nitrogen donor and a carbon donor, and is thus an important muscle-building amino acid; it also helps replenish muscle glycogen after exercise. Without sufficient glutamine, muscles begin to atrophy. Glutamine is many essential for intestinal, immune and muscle functions.
The synthesis of glutamine protects the body, and the brain in particular, from ammonia toxicity. Excess ammonia is a crucial factor in the development of neurodegenerative diseases, since ammonia interferes with the oxidative metabolism of neurons and reduces the production of ATP, the "energy molecule." In addition, ammonia gives rise to very harmful nitrogen-based free radicals.
In the brain, glutamine is a substrate for the production of both excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters (glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid, popularly known as GABA). Glutamine is also an important source of energy for the nervous system. If the brain is not receiving enough glucose, it compensates by increasing glutamine metabolism for energy. Glutamine users often report more energy, less fatigue and better mood.
L-Glutamine, a free-form amino acid, can be converted to glutamic acid. Glutamic acid is a usable energy source for the brain and a precursor to the important inhibitory neurotrans-mitter, GABA (gamma amino butyric acid), L-glutamine also plays an important role in ammonia disposal.